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List of language pairs

This page references the set of language pairs currently developed for the Apertium project.

The language pairs are divided into four branches according to their state of progress.


A lot of language pairs propose translation variants. For those know them, are accessible on this website by choosing the manual input of the translation direction.

Not all the language pairs have been developed to translate in both directions. The tables indicate the translation directions that have been planned.

A small number of language pairs propose several variants for the destination language (for example Norwegian) for which none of them match a code in the name of the pair.
In this case, the following tables does not mention the possibility to translate to this language.

The last update days are indicated using UTC time and the changes which are less than one day and half old may not have been taken into account.

Trunk

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-afr-nldAfrikaans <-> Dutch21 july 2018
apertium-arg-catAragonese <-> Catalan31 mar 2018
apertium-bel-rusBelarusian <-> Russian02 aug 2017
apertium-br-frBreton --> French19 july 2017
apertium-cat-itaCatalan <-> Italian15 july 2019
apertium-cat-srdCatalan <-> Sardinian03 june 2019
apertium-crh-turCrimean Tatar <-> Turkish05 may 2019
apertium-cym-engWelsh <-> English17 july 2018
apertium-dan-norDanish <-- Norwegian02 apr 2019
apertium-eng-catEnglish <-> Catalan30 june 2019
apertium-eng-kazEnglish <-> Kazakh12 mar 2019
apertium-en-glEnglish <-> Galician15 july 2016
apertium-eng-spaEnglish <-> Spanish04 apr 2019
apertium-eo-caEsperanto <-- Catalan15 sept 2017
apertium-eo-enEsperanto <-> English13 dec 2015
apertium-eo-esEsperanto <-- Spanish15 febr 2017
apertium-eo-frEsperanto <-- French27 july 2018
apertium-es-glSpanish <-> Galician28 june 2019
apertium-es-ptSpanish <-> Portuguese05 july 2016
apertium-es-roSpanish <-> Romanian13 dec 2015
apertium-eu-enBasque --> English13 dec 2015
apertium-eu-esBasque --> Spanish13 jan 2016
apertium-fra-catFrench <-> Catalan20 june 2019
apertium-fr-esFrench <-> Spanish27 sept 2018
apertium-hbs-engSerbo-Croatian <-> English15 oct 2014
apertium-hbs-mkdSerbo-Croatian <-> Macedonian26 oct 2018
apertium-hbs-slvSerbo-Croatian <-> Slovenian09 mar 2015
apertium-ind-zlmIndonesian <-> Malay (zlm)25 june 2018
apertium-isl-engIcelandic --> English29 june 2019
apertium-isl-sweIcelandic <-> Swedish09 mar 2018
apertium-kaz-rusKazakh <-> Russian12 mar 2019
apertium-kaz-tatKazakh <-> Tatar02 july 2019
apertium-mkd-bulMacedonian <-> Bulgarian09 mar 2018
apertium-mkd-engMacedonian --> English09 mar 2018
apertium-mlt-araMaltese <-> Arabic10 mar 2019
apertium-nno-nobNorwegian Nynorsk <-> Norwegian Bokmål28 june 2019
apertium-oc-caOccitan <-> Catalan15 oct 2018
apertium-oc-esOccitan <-> Spanish13 dec 2015
apertium-pol-szlPolish <-> code_szl18 oct 2018
apertium-pt-caPortuguese <-> Catalan13 dec 2015
apertium-pt-glPortuguese <-> Galician12 may 2015
apertium-ron-catRomanian <-> Catalan30 june 2019
apertium-rus-ukrRussian <-> Ukrainian03 oct 2017
apertium-sme-nobNorthern Sami --> Norwegian Bokmål31 may 2019
apertium-spa-argSpanish <-> Aragonese31 mar 2018
apertium-spa-astSpanish <-> Asturian03 oct 2018
apertium-spa-catSpanish <-> Catalan13 july 2019
apertium-spa-itaSpanish <-> Italian31 aug 2017
apertium-srd-itaSardinian <-> Italian09 may 2019
apertium-swe-danSwedish <-> Danish13 mar 2019
apertium-swe-norSwedish <-- Norwegian07 apr 2019
apertium-urd-hinUrdu <-> Hindi04 jan 2016

Staging

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-cat-glgCatalan <-> Galician18 nov 2016
apertium-fao-norFaroese -?- Norwegian20 febr 2018
apertium-fra-porFrench <-> Portuguese08 sept 2018
apertium-hbs_HR-hbs_SRCroatian -?- Serbian28 oct 2016
apertium-mlt-hebMaltese <-> Hebrew01 dec 2018
apertium-pol-cesPolish <-> Czech24 oct 2017
apertium-scn-spaSicilian <-> Spanish14 dec 2016
apertium-tet-porTetum --> Portuguese08 july 2013

Nursery

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-bg-enBulgarian <-> English09 june 2014
apertium-eng-afrEnglish <-> Afrikaans10 nov 2018
apertium-eng-deuEnglish <-> German15 nov 2018
apertium-eng-hinEnglish <-> Hindi12 jan 2017
apertium-en-ptEnglish <-> Portuguese23 may 2019
apertium-eo-ruEsperanto -?- Russian27 mar 2018
apertium-epo-fraEsperanto <-> French12 june 2019
apertium-es-csSpanish <-> Czech09 june 2014
apertium-es-sspSpanish --> Spanish signs language09 june 2014
apertium-fao-islFaroese <-- Icelandic11 mar 2018
apertium-fin-deuFinnish <-> German17 jan 2019
apertium-fin-engFinnish <-> English14 may 2019
apertium-fr-itFrench <-> Italian09 apr 2015
apertium-ga-gdIrish <-> Scottish Gaelic09 june 2014
apertium-hbs-rusSerbo-Croatian <-> Russian21 mar 2016
apertium-hye-engArmenian --> English22 jan 2013
apertium-it-ptItalian <-> Portuguese09 june 2014
apertium-kaz-kirKazakh <-> Kirghiz15 june 2019
apertium-kaz-kumKazakh --> Kumyk27 july 2014
apertium-nld-fryDutch <-> Western Frisian04 june 2013
apertium-nor-engNorwegian <-> English25 apr 2016
apertium-pol-ukrPolish <-> Ukrainian09 mar 2018
apertium-quz-spaCusco Quechua --> Spanish26 nov 2014
apertium-ro-itRomanian <-> Italian09 june 2014
apertium-slv-spaSlovenian -?- Spanish25 june 2016
apertium-sme-finNorthern Sami <-> Finnish30 nov 2018
apertium-sme-smaNorthern Sami <-> Southern Sami01 june 2019
apertium-sme-smjNorthern Sami <-> Lule Sami06 june 2019
apertium-sme-smnNorthern Sami <-> Inari Sami31 may 2019
apertium-spa-qveSpanish -?- Eastern Apurimac Quechua22 dec 2016
apertium-tat-bakTatar <-> Bashkir26 apr 2019
apertium-tat-rusTatar --> Russian06 apr 2019
apertium-tgk-pesTajik <-> Iranian Persian04 jan 2016
apertium-tur-azeTurkish --> Azerbaijani09 june 2014
apertium-tur-kirTurkish <-> Kirghiz07 july 2019
apertium-tur-tatTurkish <-> Tatar17 july 2019
apertium-tur-uzbTurkish <-> Uzbek17 july 2019
apertium-udm-rusUdmurt <-> Russian20 july 2016

Incubator

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-afr-deuAfrikaans <-> German12 nov 2018
apertium-ara-hebArabic <-> Hebrew20 apr 2015
apertium-as-hiAssamese --> Hindi14 jan 2013
apertium-asm-benAssamese <-> Bengali04 jan 2016
apertium-asm-engAssamese <-> English04 jan 2016
apertium-ava-rusAvaric --> Russian09 june 2014
apertium-bas-btcBasa <-> code_btc21 aug 2018
apertium-bg-elBulgarian --> Modern Greek10 dec 2010
apertium-bg-ruBulgarian -?- Russian06 jan 2011
apertium-bn-enBengali <-> English04 jan 2016
apertium-bn-hiBengali -?- Hindi29 nov 2010
apertium-bre-cymBreton -?- Welsh19 apr 2018
apertium-bre-spaBreton -?- Spanish19 apr 2018
apertium-bua-khkBuriat <-> Khalkha11 apr 2015
apertium-byv-fraMedumba <-> French16 july 2019
apertium-cat-cosCatalan <-> Corsican05 nov 2013
apertium-cat-inaCatalan <-> Interlingua07 jan 2016
apertium-ces-cesCzech -?- Czech04 july 2014
apertium-ces-hbsCzech --> Serbo-Croatian15 may 2013
apertium-ces-rusCzech <-> Russian30 june 2017
apertium-ces-slkCzech <-> Slovak09 june 2014
apertium-chv-rusChuvash --> Russian01 apr 2018
apertium-chv-tatChuvash <-> Tatar11 aug 2018
apertium-chv-turChuvash <-> Turkish01 dec 2017
apertium-ckb-engCentral Kurdish <-> English12 oct 2016
apertium-cos-itaCorsican <-> Italian30 sept 2017
apertium-cos-porCorsican <-> Portuguese26 oct 2018
apertium-cs-slCzech --> Slovenian10 mar 2013
apertium-cy-esWelsh -?- Spanish11 oct 2011
apertium-deu-danGerman <-> Danish05 dec 2017
apertium-deu-inaGerman <-> Interlingua13 apr 2016
apertium-deu-ltzGerman <-> Luxembourgish04 dec 2016
apertium-deu-nldGerman <-> Dutch02 mar 2017
apertium-deu-sweGerman <-> Swedish01 mar 2017
apertium-ell-engModern Greek <-> English29 sept 2015
apertium-en-gaEnglish <-> Irish27 nov 2017
apertium-eng-iboEnglish <-> Igbo28 mar 2019
apertium-eng-inaEnglish <-> Interlingua13 jan 2017
apertium-eng-itaEnglish <-> Italian08 jan 2017
apertium-eng-kirEnglish <-> Kirghiz16 june 2019
apertium-eng-lvsEnglish <-> Standard Latvian09 june 2014
apertium-eng-pesEnglish <-> Iranian Persian11 aug 2015
apertium-eng-scoEnglish <-> Scots01 apr 2017
apertium-eng-srnEnglish <-> Sranan Tongo03 sept 2017
apertium-eng-telEnglish <-> Telugu27 febr 2015
apertium-en-itEnglish <-> Italian09 june 2015
apertium-en-ltEnglish -?- Lithuanian06 dec 2010
apertium-en-mtEnglish -?- Maltese19 june 2011
apertium-en-nlEnglish <-> Dutch29 apr 2011
apertium-en-plEnglish <-> Polish09 june 2014
apertium-en-sqEnglish --> Albanian30 aug 2010
apertium-eo-beEsperanto -?- Belarusian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-bgEsperanto -?- Bulgarian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-brEsperanto -?- Breton12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-csEsperanto -?- Czech12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-deEsperanto -?- German12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-elEsperanto -?- Modern Greek25 dec 2013
apertium-eo-faEsperanto -?- Persian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-fiEsperanto -?- Finnish12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-heEsperanto -?- Hebrew12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-huEsperanto -?- Hungarian31 dec 2013
apertium-eo-itEsperanto -?- Italian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-neEsperanto -?- Nepali12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-nlEsperanto -?- Dutch04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-plEsperanto -?- Polish12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-ptEsperanto -?- Portuguese24 apr 2014
apertium-eo-skEsperanto -?- Slovak19 nov 2010
apertium-eo-svEsperanto -?- Swedish04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-trEsperanto -?- Turkish12 dec 2011
apertium-es-iaSpanish --> Interlingua09 june 2014
apertium-est-norEstonian -?- Norwegian07 june 2014
apertium-eu-eu_bisBasque <-> Basque_bis09 june 2014
apertium-eu-frBasque --> French09 june 2014
apertium-eu-huBasque -?- Hungarian18 aug 2011
apertium-eus-finBasque --> Finnish07 oct 2014
apertium-eus-smeBasque --> Northern Sami19 apr 2012
apertium-fao-danFaroese <-> Danish13 aug 2017
apertium-fin-cesFinnish <-> Czech14 july 2014
apertium-fin-estFinnish <-> Estonian18 dec 2017
apertium-fin-fkvFinnish <-> Kven Finnish28 sept 2016
apertium-fin-fraFinnish <-> French12 july 2018
apertium-fin-gleFinnish <-> Irish24 aug 2014
apertium-fin-hbsFinnish <-> Serbo-Croatian02 sept 2014
apertium-fin-hunFinnish <-> Hungarian01 oct 2018
apertium-fin-islFinnish <-> Icelandic09 june 2014
apertium-fin-itaFinnish <-> Italian11 sept 2014
apertium-fin-kazFinnish <-> Kazakh19 apr 2018
apertium-fin-oloFinnish <-> Livvi18 jan 2017
apertium-fin-rusFinnish <-> Russian05 apr 2019
apertium-fin-spaFinnish <-> Spanish09 june 2016
apertium-fin-sweFinnish <-> Swedish27 aug 2018
apertium-fin-udmFinnish <-> Udmurt09 june 2014
apertium-fra-engFrench <-> English29 oct 2018
apertium-fra-inaFrench <-> Interlingua07 jan 2017
apertium-fra-itaFrench <-> Italian05 febr 2019
apertium-fra-ronFrench <-> Romanian15 jan 2015
apertium-fr-nlFrench <-> Dutch29 apr 2011
apertium-ga-gvIrish -?- Manx30 jan 2014
apertium-gle-engIrish <-> English01 febr 2016
apertium-grn-spaGuarani <-> Spanish03 aug 2018
apertium-guc-spaWayuu <-- Spanish09 june 2014
apertium-guj-hinGujarati <-> Hindi23 mar 2016
apertium-haw-engHawaiian <-> English14 jan 2018
apertium-hin-panHindi -?- Punjabi18 febr 2019
apertium-ht-enHaitian Creole --> English04 jan 2016
apertium-hun-engHungarian --> English19 jan 2016
apertium-ina-spaInterlingua <-> Spanish29 dec 2016
apertium-isl-rusIcelandic <-> Russian09 june 2014
apertium-ita-itaItalian -?- Italian07 jan 2014
apertium-ita-norItalian <-> Norwegian17 mar 2015
apertium-ita-srdItalian -?- Sardinian13 mar 2013
apertium-kan-marKannada <-> Marathi17 apr 2019
apertium-kaz-kaaKazakh <-> Kara-Kalpak24 june 2019
apertium-kaz-sahKazakh <-> Sakha09 may 2019
apertium-kaz-turKazakh <-> Turkish26 mar 2019
apertium-kaz-tyvKazakh <-> Tuvinian08 nov 2015
apertium-kaz-uigKazakh <-> Uighur09 june 2014
apertium-khk-kazKhalkha <-> Kazakh04 jan 2019
apertium-kir-uzbKirghiz <-> Uzbek14 apr 2015
apertium-kmr-engKhmer <-> English06 mar 2017
apertium-kpv-finKomi-Zyrian <-> Finnish20 mar 2017
apertium-kpv-mhrKomi-Zyrian <-> Mamaa20 mar 2017
apertium-kv-ruKomi --> Russian05 jan 2012
apertium-ky-enKirghiz -?- English29 june 2011
apertium-la-enLatin -?- English08 mar 2018
apertium-la-esLatin --> Spanish09 june 2014
apertium-la-itLatin --> Italian10 febr 2010
apertium-lat-engLatin <-> English18 dec 2017
apertium-liv-finLivonian <-> Finnish09 june 2014
apertium-lt-lvLithuanian -?- Latvian03 dec 2010
apertium-lv-lgLatvian <-> Ganda09 june 2014
apertium-mal-engMalayalam <-> English04 jan 2016
apertium-mar-engMarathi --> English12 may 2013
apertium-mar-hinMarathi <-> Hindi08 mar 2018
apertium-mfe-enMauritian Creole --> English19 june 2010
apertium-mkd-sqiMacedonian <-> Albanian19 mar 2016
apertium-mlt-spaMaltese --> Spanish09 june 2014
apertium-mrj-finWestern Mari <-> Finnish09 june 2014
apertium-myv-finErzya <-> Finnish09 june 2014
apertium-myv-mdfErzya <-> Moksha11 may 2017
apertium-ne-enNepali <-> English09 june 2014
apertium-nog-kazNogai -?- Kazakh29 sept 2013
apertium-oci-fraOccitan <-> French27 june 2019
apertium-olo-finLivvi <-> Finnish08 nov 2015
apertium-pes-engIranian Persian <-> English08 may 2017
apertium-pes-glkIranian Persian --> Gilaki17 july 2014
apertium-pl-csbPolish <-> Kashubian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-dsbPolish -?- Lower Sorbian26 dec 2010
apertium-pl-eoPolish -?- Esperanto30 oct 2010
apertium-pl-hsbPolish -?- Upper Sorbian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-ltPolish -?- Lithuanian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-lvPolish -?- Latvian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-skPolish <-> Slovak31 oct 2013
apertium-pol-hbsPolish -?- Serbo-Croatian24 aug 2014
apertium-pol-rusPolish <-> Russian30 may 2017
apertium-por-catPortuguese <-> Catalan18 july 2019
apertium-por-inaPortuguese <-> Interlingua18 mar 2016
apertium-ron-inaRomanian <-> Interlingua08 jan 2014
apertium-ron-rupRomanian -?- Aromanian24 nov 2013
apertium-ru-cuRussian -?- Church Slavic14 july 2009
apertium-rus-engRussian -?- English18 may 2014
apertium-sah-engSakha -?- English18 mar 2015
apertium-sc-ptSardinian -?- Portuguese28 oct 2010
apertium-si-enSinhalese <-> English09 june 2014
apertium-sjo-engXibe --> English09 nov 2014
apertium-sl-mkSlovenian <-> Macedonian09 june 2014
apertium-slv-itaSlovenian <-> Italian04 jan 2016
apertium-slv-polSlovenian -?- Polish10 mar 2013
apertium-sma-nobSouthern Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål14 sept 2018
apertium-sme-deuNorthern Sami -?- German19 apr 2012
apertium-sme-estNorthern Sami <-> Estonian22 june 2017
apertium-sme-spaNorthern Sami -?- Spanish19 apr 2012
apertium-smj-nobLule Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål25 sept 2015
apertium-snd-hinSindhi <-> Hindi19 oct 2015
apertium-spa-cosSpanish <-> Corsican16 dec 2016
apertium-spa-deuSpanish <-> German26 aug 2016
apertium-spa-polSpanish <-> Polish01 nov 2016
apertium-swa-engSwahili -?- English17 dec 2016
apertium-swe-engSwedish <-> English24 nov 2018
apertium-sw-rnSwahili --> Rundi11 apr 2011
apertium-tat-engTatar <-> English06 apr 2019
apertium-tat-kaaTatar <-> Kara-Kalpak08 apr 2019
apertium-tat-kirTatar -?- Kirghiz29 dec 2013
apertium-tel-marTelugu <-> Marathi07 jan 2015
apertium-tgl-cebTagalog -?- Cebuano04 may 2011
apertium-tha-engThai <-> English03 dec 2016
apertium-tha-laoThai <-> Lao16 apr 2017
apertium-tr-enTurkish <-- English18 oct 2010
apertium-tur-finTurkish <-> Finnish21 july 2016
apertium-udm-kpvUdmurt <-> Komi-Zyrian21 june 2018
apertium-uig-turUighur <-> Turkish18 july 2019
apertium-urd-panUrdu -?- Punjabi16 apr 2018
apertium-urd-sndUrdu <-> Sindhi08 nov 2015
apertium-uzb-kaaUzbek <-> Kara-Kalpak03 july 2019
apertium-vi-enVietnamese --> English08 mar 2018
apertium-vro-estVõro <-> Estonian18 apr 2017
apertium-zh_CN-zh_TWSimplified Chinese --> Traditional Chinese29 mar 2010
apertium-zho-spaMandarin Chinese <-> Spanish28 mar 2017
apertium-zul-sswZulu <-> Swati05 july 2014
apertium-zu-xhZulu -?- Xhosa08 nov 2010