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List of language pairs

This page references the set of language pairs currently developed for the Apertium project.

The language pairs are divided into four branches according to their state of progress.


A lot of language pairs propose translation variants. For those know them, are accessible on this website by choosing the manual input of the translation direction.

Not all the language pairs have been developed to translate in both directions. The tables indicate the translation directions that have been planned.

A small number of language pairs propose several variants for the destination language (for example Norwegian) for which none of them match a code in the name of the pair.
In this case, the following tables does not mention the possibility to translate to this language.

The last update days are indicated using UTC time and the changes which are less than one day and half old may not have been taken into account.

Trunk

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-afr-nldAfrikaans <-> Dutch27 nov 2019
apertium-arg-catAragonese <-> Catalan03 july 2020
apertium-bel-rusBelarusian <-> Russian27 mar 2020
apertium-br-frBreton --> French19 july 2017
apertium-cat-itaCatalan <-> Italian18 jan 2020
apertium-cat-srdCatalan <-> Sardinian03 june 2019
apertium-crh-turCrimean Tatar <-> Turkish17 sept 2019
apertium-cym-engWelsh <-> English06 june 2020
apertium-dan-norDanish <-- Norwegian02 july 2020
apertium-eng-catEnglish <-> Catalan21 june 2020
apertium-eng-kazEnglish <-> Kazakh24 may 2020
apertium-en-glEnglish <-> Galician15 july 2016
apertium-eng-spaEnglish <-> Spanish19 june 2020
apertium-eo-caEsperanto <-- Catalan15 sept 2017
apertium-eo-enEsperanto <-> English22 oct 2019
apertium-eo-esEsperanto <-- Spanish15 febr 2017
apertium-eo-frEsperanto <-- French27 july 2018
apertium-es-glSpanish <-> Galician09 nov 2019
apertium-es-ptSpanish <-> Portuguese12 sept 2019
apertium-es-roSpanish <-> Romanian13 dec 2015
apertium-eu-enBasque --> English13 dec 2015
apertium-eu-esBasque --> Spanish13 jan 2016
apertium-fra-catFrench <-> Catalan27 june 2020
apertium-fr-esFrench <-> Spanish27 sept 2018
apertium-hbs-engSerbo-Croatian <-> English15 oct 2014
apertium-hbs-mkdSerbo-Croatian <-> Macedonian26 oct 2018
apertium-hbs-slvSerbo-Croatian <-> Slovenian09 mar 2015
apertium-ind-zlmIndonesian <-> Malay (zlm)27 nov 2019
apertium-isl-engIcelandic --> English28 nov 2019
apertium-isl-sweIcelandic <-> Swedish01 june 2020
apertium-kaz-rusKazakh <-> Russian12 mar 2019
apertium-kaz-tatKazakh <-> Tatar02 july 2019
apertium-mkd-bulMacedonian <-> Bulgarian01 june 2020
apertium-mkd-engMacedonian --> English01 june 2020
apertium-mlt-araMaltese <-> Arabic10 mar 2019
apertium-nno-nobNorwegian Nynorsk <-> Norwegian Bokmål06 july 2020
apertium-oc-caOccitan <-> Catalan19 june 2020
apertium-oc-esOccitan <-> Spanish13 dec 2015
apertium-oci-fraOccitan <-> French03 july 2020
apertium-pol-szlPolish <-> code_szl02 dec 2019
apertium-por-catPortuguese <-> Catalan11 febr 2020
apertium-pt-glPortuguese <-> Galician12 may 2015
apertium-ron-catRomanian <-> Catalan11 may 2020
apertium-rus-ukrRussian <-> Ukrainian03 oct 2017
apertium-sme-nobNorthern Sami --> Norwegian Bokmål16 june 2020
apertium-spa-argSpanish <-> Aragonese31 mar 2018
apertium-spa-astSpanish <-> Asturian17 june 2020
apertium-spa-catSpanish <-> Catalan04 july 2020
apertium-spa-itaSpanish <-> Italian31 aug 2017
apertium-srd-itaSardinian <-> Italian11 june 2020
apertium-swe-danSwedish <-> Danish02 july 2020
apertium-swe-norSwedish <-- Norwegian02 july 2020
apertium-urd-hinUrdu <-> Hindi04 jan 2016

Staging

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-cat-glgCatalan <-> Galician18 nov 2016
apertium-fao-norFaroese -?- Norwegian20 febr 2018
apertium-fra-porFrench <-> Portuguese08 sept 2018
apertium-hbs_HR-hbs_SRCroatian -?- Serbian28 oct 2016
apertium-mlt-hebMaltese <-> Hebrew01 dec 2018
apertium-pol-cesPolish <-> Czech24 oct 2017
apertium-scn-spaSicilian <-> Spanish29 june 2020
apertium-tet-porTetum --> Portuguese08 july 2013

Nursery

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-bg-enBulgarian <-> English29 may 2020
apertium-eng-afrEnglish <-> Afrikaans10 nov 2018
apertium-eng-deuEnglish <-> German16 sept 2019
apertium-eng-hinEnglish <-> Hindi03 febr 2020
apertium-en-ptEnglish <-> Portuguese29 may 2020
apertium-eo-ruEsperanto -?- Russian27 mar 2018
apertium-epo-fraEsperanto <-> French29 may 2020
apertium-es-csSpanish <-> Czech29 may 2020
apertium-es-sspSpanish --> Spanish signs language29 may 2020
apertium-fao-islFaroese <-- Icelandic29 may 2020
apertium-fin-deuFinnish <-> German05 febr 2020
apertium-fin-engFinnish <-> English30 may 2020
apertium-fr-itFrench <-> Italian09 apr 2015
apertium-ga-gdIrish <-> Scottish Gaelic31 may 2020
apertium-hbs-rusSerbo-Croatian <-> Russian31 may 2020
apertium-hye-engArmenian --> English22 jan 2013
apertium-it-ptItalian <-> Portuguese09 june 2014
apertium-kaz-kirKazakh <-> Kirghiz15 june 2019
apertium-kaz-kumKazakh --> Kumyk31 may 2020
apertium-nld-fryDutch <-> Western Frisian04 june 2013
apertium-nor-engNorwegian <-> English25 apr 2016
apertium-pol-ukrPolish <-> Ukrainian15 june 2019
apertium-quz-spaCusco Quechua --> Spanish26 nov 2014
apertium-ro-itRomanian <-> Italian01 june 2020
apertium-slv-spaSlovenian -?- Spanish01 june 2020
apertium-sme-finNorthern Sami <-> Finnish28 jan 2020
apertium-sme-smaNorthern Sami <-> Southern Sami23 june 2020
apertium-sme-smjNorthern Sami <-> Lule Sami15 apr 2020
apertium-sme-smnNorthern Sami <-> Inari Sami15 apr 2020
apertium-spa-qveSpanish -?- Eastern Apurimac Quechua22 dec 2016
apertium-tat-bakTatar <-> Bashkir26 apr 2019
apertium-tat-rusTatar --> Russian06 apr 2019
apertium-tgk-pesTajik <-> Iranian Persian04 jan 2016
apertium-tur-azeTurkish --> Azerbaijani01 june 2020
apertium-tur-kirTurkish <-> Kirghiz07 july 2019
apertium-tur-tatTurkish <-> Tatar17 july 2019
apertium-tur-uzbTurkish <-> Uzbek02 july 2020
apertium-udm-rusUdmurt <-> Russian01 june 2020

Incubator

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-afr-deuAfrikaans <-> German12 nov 2018
apertium-ara-hebArabic <-> Hebrew20 apr 2015
apertium-as-hiAssamese --> Hindi14 jan 2013
apertium-asm-benAssamese <-> Bengali29 may 2020
apertium-asm-engAssamese <-> English04 jan 2016
apertium-ava-rusAvaric --> Russian09 june 2014
apertium-bas-btcBasa <-> code_btc06 june 2020
apertium-bg-elBulgarian --> Modern Greek10 dec 2010
apertium-bg-ruBulgarian -?- Russian06 jan 2011
apertium-bn-enBengali <-> English28 febr 2020
apertium-bn-hiBengali -?- Hindi29 nov 2010
apertium-bre-cymBreton -?- Welsh19 apr 2018
apertium-bre-spaBreton -?- Spanish19 apr 2018
apertium-bua-khkBuriat <-> Khalkha11 apr 2015
apertium-byv-fraMedumba <-> French20 july 2019
apertium-cat-cosCatalan <-> Corsican05 nov 2013
apertium-cat-inaCatalan <-> Interlingua07 jan 2016
apertium-ces-cesCzech -?- Czech04 july 2014
apertium-ces-hbsCzech --> Serbo-Croatian15 may 2013
apertium-ces-rusCzech <-> Russian30 june 2017
apertium-ces-slkCzech <-> Slovak06 june 2020
apertium-chv-rusChuvash --> Russian01 apr 2018
apertium-chv-tatChuvash <-> Tatar29 may 2020
apertium-chv-turChuvash <-> Turkish01 dec 2017
apertium-ckb-engCentral Kurdish <-> English12 oct 2016
apertium-cos-itaCorsican <-> Italian30 sept 2017
apertium-cos-porCorsican <-> Portuguese26 oct 2018
apertium-cs-slCzech --> Slovenian10 mar 2013
apertium-cy-esWelsh -?- Spanish11 oct 2011
apertium-deu-danGerman <-> Danish05 dec 2017
apertium-deu-inaGerman <-> Interlingua13 apr 2016
apertium-deu-ltzGerman <-> Luxembourgish04 dec 2016
apertium-deu-nldGerman <-> Dutch02 mar 2017
apertium-deu-sweGerman <-> Swedish01 mar 2017
apertium-ell-engModern Greek <-> English03 july 2020
apertium-en-gaEnglish <-> Irish27 nov 2017
apertium-eng-iboEnglish <-> Igbo30 may 2020
apertium-eng-inaEnglish <-> Interlingua13 jan 2017
apertium-eng-itaEnglish <-> Italian08 jan 2017
apertium-eng-kirEnglish <-> Kirghiz06 june 2020
apertium-eng-lvsEnglish <-> Standard Latvian29 may 2020
apertium-eng-pesEnglish <-> Iranian Persian11 aug 2015
apertium-eng-scoEnglish <-> Scots01 apr 2017
apertium-eng-srnEnglish <-> Sranan Tongo03 sept 2017
apertium-eng-telEnglish <-> Telugu29 may 2020
apertium-en-itEnglish <-> Italian09 june 2015
apertium-en-ltEnglish -?- Lithuanian06 dec 2010
apertium-en-mtEnglish -?- Maltese19 june 2011
apertium-en-nlEnglish <-> Dutch29 apr 2011
apertium-en-plEnglish <-> Polish09 june 2014
apertium-en-sqEnglish --> Albanian30 aug 2010
apertium-eo-beEsperanto -?- Belarusian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-bgEsperanto -?- Bulgarian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-brEsperanto -?- Breton12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-csEsperanto -?- Czech12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-deEsperanto -?- German12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-elEsperanto -?- Modern Greek25 dec 2013
apertium-eo-faEsperanto -?- Persian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-fiEsperanto -?- Finnish12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-heEsperanto -?- Hebrew12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-huEsperanto -?- Hungarian31 dec 2013
apertium-eo-itEsperanto -?- Italian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-neEsperanto -?- Nepali12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-nlEsperanto -?- Dutch04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-plEsperanto -?- Polish12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-ptEsperanto -?- Portuguese24 apr 2014
apertium-eo-skEsperanto -?- Slovak19 nov 2010
apertium-eo-svEsperanto -?- Swedish04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-trEsperanto -?- Turkish12 dec 2011
apertium-es-iaSpanish --> Interlingua29 may 2020
apertium-est-norEstonian -?- Norwegian07 june 2014
apertium-eu-eu_bisBasque <-> Basque_bis09 june 2014
apertium-eu-frBasque --> French29 may 2020
apertium-eu-huBasque -?- Hungarian18 aug 2011
apertium-eus-finBasque --> Finnish29 may 2020
apertium-eus-smeBasque --> Northern Sami19 apr 2012
apertium-fao-danFaroese <-> Danish13 aug 2017
apertium-fin-cesFinnish <-> Czech29 may 2020
apertium-fin-estFinnish <-> Estonian09 sept 2019
apertium-fin-fkvFinnish <-> Kven Finnish30 may 2020
apertium-fin-fraFinnish <-> French05 june 2020
apertium-fin-gleFinnish <-> Irish24 aug 2014
apertium-fin-hbsFinnish <-> Serbo-Croatian02 sept 2014
apertium-fin-hunFinnish <-> Hungarian01 oct 2018
apertium-fin-islFinnish <-> Icelandic09 june 2014
apertium-fin-itaFinnish <-> Italian31 may 2020
apertium-fin-kazFinnish <-> Kazakh19 apr 2018
apertium-fin-krlFinnish <-> Karelian25 nov 2019
apertium-fin-norFinnish Norwegian10 june 2020
apertium-fin-oloFinnish <-> Livvi18 jan 2017
apertium-fin-rusFinnish <-> Russian05 apr 2019
apertium-fin-spaFinnish <-> Spanish31 may 2020
apertium-fin-sweFinnish <-> Swedish31 may 2020
apertium-fin-udmFinnish <-> Udmurt31 may 2020
apertium-fra-engFrench <-> English11 june 2020
apertium-fra-inaFrench <-> Interlingua07 jan 2017
apertium-fra-itaFrench <-> Italian05 febr 2019
apertium-fra-ronFrench <-> Romanian15 jan 2015
apertium-fr-nlFrench <-> Dutch29 apr 2011
apertium-ga-gvIrish -?- Manx30 jan 2014
apertium-gle-engIrish <-> English01 febr 2016
apertium-grn-spaGuarani <-> Spanish31 may 2020
apertium-guc-spaWayuu <-- Spanish09 june 2014
apertium-guj-hinGujarati <-> Hindi23 mar 2016
apertium-haw-engHawaiian <-> English14 jan 2018
apertium-hin-panHindi -?- Punjabi07 july 2020
apertium-ht-enHaitian Creole --> English31 may 2020
apertium-hun-engHungarian --> English19 jan 2016
apertium-ina-spaInterlingua <-> Spanish29 dec 2016
apertium-ind-engIndonesian English10 apr 2020
apertium-isl-rusIcelandic <-> Russian31 may 2020
apertium-ita-itaItalian -?- Italian07 jan 2014
apertium-ita-norItalian <-> Norwegian17 mar 2015
apertium-ita-srdItalian -?- Sardinian13 mar 2013
apertium-kan-marKannada <-> Marathi17 apr 2019
apertium-kaz-kaaKazakh <-> Kara-Kalpak31 may 2020
apertium-kaz-sahKazakh <-> Sakha21 sept 2019
apertium-kaz-turKazakh <-> Turkish26 mar 2019
apertium-kaz-tyvKazakh <-> Tuvinian08 nov 2015
apertium-kaz-uigKazakh <-> Uighur31 may 2020
apertium-khk-kazKhalkha <-> Kazakh31 may 2020
apertium-kir-uzbKirghiz <-> Uzbek31 may 2020
apertium-kmr-engKhmer <-> English06 mar 2017
apertium-kpv-finKomi-Zyrian <-> Finnish20 mar 2017
apertium-kpv-mhrKomi-Zyrian <-> Mamaa20 mar 2017
apertium-kv-ruKomi --> Russian05 jan 2012
apertium-ky-enKirghiz -?- English29 june 2011
apertium-la-enLatin -?- English08 mar 2018
apertium-la-esLatin --> Spanish31 may 2020
apertium-la-itLatin --> Italian10 febr 2010
apertium-lat-engLatin <-> English18 dec 2017
apertium-liv-finLivonian <-> Finnish31 may 2020
apertium-lt-lvLithuanian -?- Latvian03 dec 2010
apertium-lv-lgLatvian <-> Ganda31 may 2020
apertium-mal-engMalayalam <-> English14 dec 2019
apertium-mar-engMarathi --> English12 may 2013
apertium-mar-hinMarathi <-> Hindi08 mar 2018
apertium-mfe-enMauritian Creole --> English19 june 2010
apertium-mkd-sqiMacedonian <-> Albanian19 mar 2016
apertium-mlt-spaMaltese --> Spanish31 may 2020
apertium-mrj-finWestern Mari <-> Finnish31 may 2020
apertium-myv-finErzya <-> Finnish18 june 2020
apertium-myv-mdfErzya <-> Moksha18 june 2020
apertium-ne-enNepali <-> English31 may 2020
apertium-nog-kazNogai -?- Kazakh29 sept 2013
apertium-olo-finLivvi <-> Finnish01 june 2020
apertium-pes-engIranian Persian <-> English08 may 2017
apertium-pes-glkIranian Persian --> Gilaki17 july 2014
apertium-pl-csbPolish <-> Kashubian01 june 2020
apertium-pl-dsbPolish -?- Lower Sorbian26 dec 2010
apertium-pl-eoPolish -?- Esperanto30 oct 2010
apertium-pl-hsbPolish -?- Upper Sorbian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-ltPolish -?- Lithuanian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-lvPolish -?- Latvian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-skPolish <-> Slovak05 june 2020
apertium-pol-hbsPolish -?- Serbo-Croatian24 aug 2014
apertium-pol-rusPolish <-> Russian30 may 2017
apertium-por-inaPortuguese <-> Interlingua18 mar 2016
apertium-quc-spacode_quc Spanish08 july 2020
apertium-ron-inaRomanian <-> Interlingua08 jan 2014
apertium-ron-rupRomanian -?- Aromanian24 nov 2013
apertium-ru-cuRussian -?- Church Slavic14 july 2009
apertium-rus-engRussian -?- English18 may 2014
apertium-sah-engSakha -?- English12 july 2018
apertium-sc-ptSardinian -?- Portuguese28 oct 2010
apertium-si-enSinhalese <-> English01 june 2020
apertium-sjo-engXibe --> English09 nov 2014
apertium-sl-mkSlovenian <-> Macedonian01 june 2020
apertium-slv-itaSlovenian <-> Italian04 jan 2016
apertium-slv-polSlovenian -?- Polish10 mar 2013
apertium-sma-nobSouthern Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål14 sept 2018
apertium-sme-deuNorthern Sami -?- German19 apr 2012
apertium-sme-estNorthern Sami <-> Estonian22 june 2017
apertium-sme-spaNorthern Sami -?- Spanish19 apr 2012
apertium-smj-nobLule Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål25 sept 2015
apertium-snd-hinSindhi <-> Hindi19 oct 2015
apertium-spa-cosSpanish <-> Corsican16 dec 2016
apertium-spa-deuSpanish <-> German26 aug 2016
apertium-spa-lvsSpanish Standard Latvian01 june 2020
apertium-spa-polSpanish <-> Polish01 june 2020
apertium-swa-engSwahili -?- English17 dec 2016
apertium-swe-engSwedish <-> English24 nov 2018
apertium-sw-rnSwahili --> Rundi11 apr 2011
apertium-tam-engTamil English14 jan 2020
apertium-tat-engTatar <-> English06 apr 2019
apertium-tat-kaaTatar <-> Kara-Kalpak01 june 2020
apertium-tat-kirTatar -?- Kirghiz29 dec 2013
apertium-tel-marTelugu <-> Marathi07 jan 2015
apertium-tgl-cebTagalog -?- Cebuano04 may 2011
apertium-tha-engThai <-> English03 dec 2016
apertium-tha-laoThai <-> Lao16 apr 2017
apertium-tr-enTurkish <-- English18 oct 2010
apertium-tur-finTurkish <-> Finnish21 july 2016
apertium-udm-kpvUdmurt <-> Komi-Zyrian21 june 2018
apertium-uig-turUighur <-> Turkish19 aug 2019
apertium-urd-panUrdu -?- Punjabi16 apr 2018
apertium-urd-sndUrdu <-> Sindhi08 nov 2015
apertium-uzb-kaaUzbek <-> Kara-Kalpak25 june 2020
apertium-vi-enVietnamese --> English08 mar 2018
apertium-vro-estVõro <-> Estonian18 apr 2017
apertium-zh_CN-zh_TWSimplified Chinese --> Traditional Chinese29 mar 2010
apertium-zho-spaMandarin Chinese <-> Spanish28 mar 2017
apertium-zul-sswZulu <-> Swati05 july 2014
apertium-zu-xhZulu -?- Xhosa08 nov 2010