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List of language pairs

This page references the set of language pairs currently developed for the Apertium project.

The language pairs are divided into four branches according to their state of progress.


A lot of language pairs propose translation variants. For those know them, are accessible on this website by choosing the manual input of the translation direction.

Not all the language pairs have been developed to translate in both directions. The tables indicate the translation directions that have been planned.

A small number of language pairs propose several variants for the destination language (for example Norwegian) for which none of them match a code in the name of the pair.
In this case, the following tables does not mention the possibility to translate to this language.

The last update days are indicated using UTC time and the changes which are less than one day and half old may not have been taken into account.

Trunk

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-afr-nldAfrikaans <-> Dutch19 july 2021
apertium-arg-catAragonese <-> Catalan31 oct 2021
apertium-bel-rusBelarusian <-> Russian19 july 2021
apertium-br-frBreton --> French27 may 2021
apertium-cat-itaCatalan <-> Italian20 jan 2022
apertium-cat-srdCatalan <-> Sardinian20 jan 2022
apertium-crh-turCrimean Tatar <-> Turkish19 july 2021
apertium-cym-engWelsh <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-dan-norDanish <-- Norwegian05 aug 2021
apertium-eng-catEnglish <-> Catalan28 dec 2021
apertium-eng-kazEnglish <-> Kazakh19 july 2021
apertium-en-glEnglish <-> Galician19 july 2021
apertium-eng-spaEnglish <-> Spanish23 july 2021
apertium-eo-caEsperanto <-- Catalan19 july 2021
apertium-eo-enEsperanto <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-eo-esEsperanto <-- Spanish19 july 2021
apertium-eo-frEsperanto <-- French19 july 2021
apertium-es-glSpanish <-> Galician19 july 2021
apertium-es-ptSpanish <-> Portuguese20 july 2021
apertium-es-roSpanish <-> Romanian19 july 2021
apertium-eu-enBasque --> English19 july 2021
apertium-eu-esBasque --> Spanish20 july 2021
apertium-fra-catFrench <-> Catalan20 jan 2022
apertium-fr-esFrench <-> Spanish19 july 2021
apertium-hbs-engSerbo-Croatian <-> English20 july 2021
apertium-hbs-mkdSerbo-Croatian <-> Macedonian19 july 2021
apertium-hbs-slvSerbo-Croatian <-> Slovenian19 july 2021
apertium-ind-zlmIndonesian <-> Malay (zlm)19 july 2021
apertium-isl-engIcelandic --> English19 july 2021
apertium-isl-sweIcelandic <-> Swedish19 july 2021
apertium-kaz-rusKazakh <-> Russian02 sept 2021
apertium-kaz-tatKazakh <-> Tatar19 july 2021
apertium-mkd-bulMacedonian <-> Bulgarian19 july 2021
apertium-mkd-engMacedonian --> English19 july 2021
apertium-mlt-araMaltese <-> Arabic19 july 2021
apertium-nno-nobNorwegian Nynorsk <-> Norwegian Bokmål24 jan 2022
apertium-oc-caOccitan <-> Catalan20 july 2021
apertium-oc-esOccitan <-> Spanish20 july 2021
apertium-oci-fraOccitan <-> French24 jan 2022
apertium-pol-szlPolish <-> code_szl20 july 2021
apertium-por-catPortuguese <-> Catalan20 jan 2022
apertium-pt-glPortuguese <-> Galician20 july 2021
apertium-ron-catRomanian <-> Catalan22 jan 2022
apertium-rus-ukrRussian <-> Ukrainian19 july 2021
apertium-sme-nobNorthern Sami --> Norwegian Bokmål13 nov 2021
apertium-spa-argSpanish <-> Aragonese20 july 2021
apertium-spa-astSpanish <-> Asturian19 july 2021
apertium-spa-catSpanish <-> Catalan22 jan 2022
apertium-spa-itaSpanish <-> Italian19 july 2021
apertium-srd-itaSardinian <-> Italian19 july 2021
apertium-swe-danSwedish <-> Danish05 aug 2021
apertium-swe-norSwedish <-- Norwegian07 jan 2022
apertium-urd-hinUrdu <-> Hindi19 july 2021

Staging

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-cat-glgCatalan <-> Galician17 jan 2022
apertium-fao-norFaroese -?- Norwegian09 nov 2021
apertium-fra-porFrench <-> Portuguese19 july 2021
apertium-hbs_HR-hbs_SRCroatian -?- Serbian27 may 2021
apertium-mlt-hebMaltese <-> Hebrew27 may 2021
apertium-pol-cesPolish <-> Czech19 july 2021
apertium-scn-spaSicilian <-> Spanish27 may 2021
apertium-tet-porTetum --> Portuguese08 july 2013

Nursery

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-bg-enBulgarian <-> English27 may 2021
apertium-eng-afrEnglish <-> Afrikaans27 may 2021
apertium-eng-deuEnglish <-> German10 jan 2022
apertium-eng-hinEnglish <-> Hindi19 july 2021
apertium-en-ptEnglish <-> Portuguese19 july 2021
apertium-eo-ruEsperanto -?- Russian21 july 2021
apertium-epo-fraEsperanto <-> French27 may 2021
apertium-es-csSpanish <-> Czech19 july 2021
apertium-es-sspSpanish --> Spanish signs language19 july 2021
apertium-fao-islFaroese <-- Icelandic19 july 2021
apertium-fin-deuFinnish <-> German02 aug 2021
apertium-fin-engFinnish <-> English28 july 2021
apertium-fr-itFrench <-> Italian09 apr 2015
apertium-ga-gdIrish <-> Scottish Gaelic19 july 2021
apertium-hbs-rusSerbo-Croatian <-> Russian19 july 2021
apertium-hye-engArmenian --> English27 may 2021
apertium-it-ptItalian <-> Portuguese27 may 2021
apertium-kaz-kirKazakh <-> Kirghiz18 oct 2021
apertium-kaz-kumKazakh --> Kumyk19 july 2021
apertium-nld-fryDutch <-> Western Frisian04 june 2013
apertium-nor-engNorwegian <-> English21 july 2021
apertium-pol-ukrPolish <-> Ukrainian19 july 2021
apertium-quz-spaCusco Quechua --> Spanish20 july 2021
apertium-ro-itRomanian <-> Italian20 july 2021
apertium-slv-spaSlovenian -?- Spanish19 july 2021
apertium-sme-finNorthern Sami <-> Finnish21 july 2021
apertium-sme-smaNorthern Sami <-> Southern Sami09 nov 2021
apertium-sme-smjNorthern Sami <-> Lule Sami29 dec 2021
apertium-sme-smnNorthern Sami <-> Inari Sami17 dec 2021
apertium-spa-qveSpanish -?- Eastern Apurimac Quechua20 july 2021
apertium-tat-bakTatar <-> Bashkir20 july 2021
apertium-tat-rusTatar --> Russian19 july 2021
apertium-tgk-pesTajik <-> Iranian Persian27 may 2021
apertium-tur-azeTurkish --> Azerbaijani27 may 2021
apertium-tur-kirTurkish <-> Kirghiz19 july 2021
apertium-tur-tatTurkish <-> Tatar19 july 2021
apertium-tur-uzbTurkish <-> Uzbek18 oct 2021
apertium-udm-rusUdmurt <-> Russian20 july 2021

Incubator

Name of the language pairLanguagesLast update
apertium-afr-deuAfrikaans <-> German19 july 2021
apertium-ara-hebArabic <-> Hebrew19 july 2021
apertium-as-hiAssamese --> Hindi14 jan 2013
apertium-asm-benAssamese <-> Bengali19 july 2021
apertium-asm-engAssamese <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-ava-rusAvaric --> Russian19 july 2021
apertium-bas-btcBasa <-> code_btc20 july 2021
apertium-bg-elBulgarian --> Modern Greek10 dec 2010
apertium-bg-ruBulgarian -?- Russian06 jan 2011
apertium-bn-enBengali <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-bn-hiBengali -?- Hindi29 nov 2010
apertium-bre-cymBreton -?- Welsh19 apr 2018
apertium-bre-spaBreton -?- Spanish19 apr 2018
apertium-bua-khkBuriat <-> Khalkha19 july 2021
apertium-byv-fraMedumba <-> French27 may 2021
apertium-cat-cosCatalan <-> Corsican05 nov 2013
apertium-cat-inaCatalan <-> Interlingua17 jan 2022
apertium-ces-cesCzech -?- Czech19 july 2021
apertium-ces-hbsCzech --> Serbo-Croatian15 may 2013
apertium-ces-rusCzech <-> Russian19 july 2021
apertium-ces-slkCzech <-> Slovak19 july 2021
apertium-chv-rusChuvash --> Russian27 may 2021
apertium-chv-tatChuvash <-> Tatar20 july 2021
apertium-chv-turChuvash <-> Turkish19 july 2021
apertium-ckb-engCentral Kurdish <-> English20 july 2021
apertium-cos-itaCorsican <-> Italian19 july 2021
apertium-cos-porCorsican <-> Portuguese19 july 2021
apertium-cs-slCzech --> Slovenian27 may 2021
apertium-cy-esWelsh -?- Spanish11 oct 2011
apertium-deu-danGerman <-> Danish27 may 2021
apertium-deu-inaGerman <-> Interlingua19 july 2021
apertium-deu-ltzGerman <-> Luxembourgish19 july 2021
apertium-deu-nldGerman <-> Dutch19 july 2021
apertium-deu-sweGerman <-> Swedish19 july 2021
apertium-ell-engModern Greek <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-en-gaEnglish <-> Irish27 may 2021
apertium-eng-iboEnglish <-> Igbo21 july 2021
apertium-eng-inaEnglish <-> Interlingua20 july 2021
apertium-eng-itaEnglish <-> Italian21 july 2021
apertium-eng-kirEnglish <-> Kirghiz18 oct 2021
apertium-eng-lvsEnglish <-> Standard Latvian19 july 2021
apertium-eng-pesEnglish <-> Iranian Persian19 july 2021
apertium-eng-scoEnglish <-> Scots19 july 2021
apertium-eng-srnEnglish <-> Sranan Tongo19 july 2021
apertium-eng-telEnglish <-> Telugu19 july 2021
apertium-en-itEnglish <-> Italian09 june 2015
apertium-en-ltEnglish -?- Lithuanian06 dec 2010
apertium-en-mtEnglish -?- Maltese27 may 2021
apertium-en-nlEnglish <-> Dutch18 nov 2020
apertium-en-plEnglish <-> Polish27 may 2021
apertium-en-sqEnglish --> Albanian30 aug 2010
apertium-eo-beEsperanto -?- Belarusian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-bgEsperanto -?- Bulgarian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-brEsperanto -?- Breton12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-csEsperanto -?- Czech12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-deEsperanto -?- German12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-elEsperanto -?- Modern Greek25 dec 2013
apertium-eo-faEsperanto -?- Persian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-fiEsperanto -?- Finnish12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-heEsperanto -?- Hebrew12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-huEsperanto -?- Hungarian31 dec 2013
apertium-eo-itEsperanto -?- Italian12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-neEsperanto -?- Nepali12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-nlEsperanto -?- Dutch04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-plEsperanto -?- Polish12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-ptEsperanto -?- Portuguese24 apr 2014
apertium-eo-skEsperanto -?- Slovak19 nov 2010
apertium-eo-svEsperanto -?- Swedish04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-trEsperanto -?- Turkish12 dec 2011
apertium-es-iaSpanish --> Interlingua19 july 2021
apertium-est-norEstonian -?- Norwegian07 june 2014
apertium-eu-eu_bisBasque <-> Basque_bis19 july 2021
apertium-eu-frBasque --> French19 july 2021
apertium-eu-huBasque -?- Hungarian18 aug 2011
apertium-eus-finBasque --> Finnish27 may 2021
apertium-eus-smeBasque --> Northern Sami19 apr 2012
apertium-fao-danFaroese <-> Danish07 nov 2021
apertium-fin-cesFinnish <-> Czech19 july 2021
apertium-fin-estFinnish <-> Estonian19 july 2021
apertium-fin-fkvFinnish <-> Kven Finnish19 july 2021
apertium-fin-fraFinnish <-> French19 july 2021
apertium-fin-gleFinnish <-> Irish21 july 2021
apertium-fin-hbsFinnish <-> Serbo-Croatian19 july 2021
apertium-fin-hunFinnish <-> Hungarian19 july 2021
apertium-fin-islFinnish <-> Icelandic21 july 2021
apertium-fin-itaFinnish <-> Italian20 july 2021
apertium-fin-kazFinnish <-> Kazakh19 july 2021
apertium-fin-krlFinnish <-> Karelian10 aug 2021
apertium-fin-norFinnish Norwegian27 july 2021
apertium-fin-oloFinnish <-> Livvi02 aug 2021
apertium-fin-rusFinnish <-> Russian19 july 2021
apertium-fin-spaFinnish <-> Spanish19 july 2021
apertium-fin-sweFinnish <-> Swedish19 july 2021
apertium-fin-udmFinnish <-> Udmurt31 may 2020
apertium-fra-engFrench <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-fra-inaFrench <-> Interlingua19 july 2021
apertium-fra-itaFrench <-> Italian19 july 2021
apertium-fra-ronFrench <-> Romanian19 july 2021
apertium-fr-nlFrench <-> Dutch29 apr 2011
apertium-ga-gvIrish -?- Manx30 jan 2014
apertium-gle-engIrish <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-grn-spaGuarani <-> Spanish19 july 2021
apertium-guc-spaWayuu <-- Spanish27 may 2021
apertium-guj-hinGujarati <-> Hindi20 july 2021
apertium-haw-engHawaiian <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-hin-panHindi -?- Punjabi18 oct 2021
apertium-ht-enHaitian Creole --> English19 july 2021
apertium-hun-engHungarian --> English19 jan 2016
apertium-ina-spaInterlingua <-> Spanish19 july 2021
apertium-ind-engIndonesian English19 july 2021
apertium-isl-rusIcelandic <-> Russian19 july 2021
apertium-ita-itaItalian -?- Italian07 jan 2014
apertium-ita-norItalian <-> Norwegian19 july 2021
apertium-ita-srdItalian -?- Sardinian13 mar 2013
apertium-kan-marKannada <-> Marathi20 july 2021
apertium-kaz-kaaKazakh <-> Kara-Kalpak20 july 2021
apertium-kaz-sahKazakh <-> Sakha12 aug 2021
apertium-kaz-turKazakh <-> Turkish19 july 2021
apertium-kaz-tyvKazakh <-> Tuvinian21 july 2021
apertium-kaz-uigKazakh <-> Uighur27 may 2021
apertium-khk-kazKhalkha <-> Kazakh19 july 2021
apertium-kir-uzbKirghiz <-> Uzbek27 may 2021
apertium-kmr-engKhmer <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-kok-hinKonkani Hindi16 dec 2021
apertium-kpv-finKomi-Zyrian <-> Finnish14 july 2021
apertium-kpv-mhrKomi-Zyrian <-> Mamaa27 may 2021
apertium-kv-ruKomi --> Russian27 may 2021
apertium-ky-enKirghiz -?- English29 june 2011
apertium-la-enLatin -?- English08 mar 2018
apertium-la-esLatin --> Spanish19 july 2021
apertium-la-itLatin --> Italian10 febr 2010
apertium-lat-engLatin <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-liv-finLivonian <-> Finnish19 july 2021
apertium-lt-lvLithuanian -?- Latvian03 dec 2010
apertium-lv-lgLatvian <-> Ganda19 july 2021
apertium-mal-engMalayalam <-> English27 may 2021
apertium-mar-engMarathi --> English12 may 2013
apertium-mar-hinMarathi <-> Hindi19 july 2021
apertium-mfe-enMauritian Creole --> English19 june 2010
apertium-mkd-sqiMacedonian <-> Albanian19 july 2021
apertium-mlt-spaMaltese --> Spanish27 may 2021
apertium-mrj-finWestern Mari <-> Finnish31 may 2020
apertium-myv-finErzya <-> Finnish23 jan 2022
apertium-myv-mdfErzya <-> Moksha24 jan 2022
apertium-ne-enNepali <-> English19 july 2021
apertium-nog-kazNogai -?- Kazakh29 sept 2013
apertium-olo-finLivvi <-> Finnish01 june 2020
apertium-pes-engIranian Persian <-> English27 may 2021
apertium-pes-glkIranian Persian --> Gilaki17 july 2014
apertium-pl-csbPolish <-> Kashubian20 july 2021
apertium-pl-dsbPolish -?- Lower Sorbian27 may 2021
apertium-pl-eoPolish -?- Esperanto30 oct 2010
apertium-pl-hsbPolish -?- Upper Sorbian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-ltPolish -?- Lithuanian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-lvPolish -?- Latvian08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-skPolish <-> Slovak19 july 2021
apertium-pol-hbsPolish -?- Serbo-Croatian24 aug 2014
apertium-pol-rusPolish <-> Russian21 july 2021
apertium-por-inaPortuguese <-> Interlingua19 july 2021
apertium-quc-spacode_quc Spanish20 oct 2021
apertium-ron-inaRomanian <-> Interlingua08 jan 2014
apertium-ron-rupRomanian -?- Aromanian24 nov 2013
apertium-ru-cuRussian -?- Church Slavic14 july 2009
apertium-rus-engRussian -?- English18 may 2014
apertium-sah-engSakha -?- English12 july 2018
apertium-sc-ptSardinian -?- Portuguese28 oct 2010
apertium-si-enSinhalese <-> English20 july 2021
apertium-sjo-engXibe --> English20 july 2021
apertium-sl-mkSlovenian <-> Macedonian19 july 2021
apertium-slv-itaSlovenian <-> Italian19 july 2021
apertium-slv-polSlovenian -?- Polish10 mar 2013
apertium-sma-nobSouthern Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål21 july 2021
apertium-sme-deuNorthern Sami -?- German19 apr 2012
apertium-sme-estNorthern Sami <-> Estonian21 july 2021
apertium-sme-spaNorthern Sami -?- Spanish19 apr 2012
apertium-smj-nobLule Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål21 july 2021
apertium-snd-hinSindhi <-> Hindi20 july 2021
apertium-spa-cosSpanish <-> Corsican20 july 2021
apertium-spa-deuSpanish <-> German20 july 2021
apertium-spa-lvsSpanish Standard Latvian20 july 2021
apertium-spa-polSpanish <-> Polish27 may 2021
apertium-swa-engSwahili -?- English17 dec 2016
apertium-swe-engSwedish <-> English20 july 2021
apertium-sw-rnSwahili --> Rundi11 apr 2011
apertium-tam-engTamil English20 july 2021
apertium-tat-engTatar <-> English20 july 2021
apertium-tat-kaaTatar <-> Kara-Kalpak20 july 2021
apertium-tat-kirTatar -?- Kirghiz29 dec 2013
apertium-tel-marTelugu <-> Marathi20 july 2021
apertium-tgl-cebTagalog -?- Cebuano04 may 2011
apertium-tha-engThai <-> English20 july 2021
apertium-tha-laoThai <-> Lao27 may 2021
apertium-tr-enTurkish <-- English18 oct 2010
apertium-tur-finTurkish <-> Finnish27 may 2021
apertium-udm-kpvUdmurt <-> Komi-Zyrian19 july 2021
apertium-uig-turUighur <-> Turkish19 july 2021
apertium-urd-panUrdu -?- Punjabi20 july 2021
apertium-urd-sndUrdu <-> Sindhi19 july 2021
apertium-uzb-kaaUzbek <-> Kara-Kalpak18 oct 2021
apertium-vi-enVietnamese --> English08 mar 2018
apertium-vro-estVõro <-> Estonian19 july 2021
apertium-zh_CN-zh_TWSimplified Chinese --> Traditional Chinese29 mar 2010
apertium-zho-spaMandarin Chinese <-> Spanish28 mar 2017
apertium-zul-sswZulu <-> Swati05 july 2014
apertium-zu-xhZulu -?- Xhosa08 nov 2010